Definition and Types of Disasters
Disaster Definition in Law Number 24 of 2007, Regarding Disaster Management states the definition of disaster as follows:
Disasters are events or series of events that threaten and disrupt the lives and livelihoods of people caused by natural factors and / or non-natural factors and human factors, resulting in human casualties, environmental damage, property losses and psychological impacts. The definition states that, disasters are caused by natural, non-natural, and human factors. Therefore, Law No. 24 of 2007 also defines natural disasters, non-natural disasters, and social disasters.
Natural disasters are disasters caused by events or a series of events caused by nature such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, hurricanes, and landslides.
Non-natural disasters are disasters caused by events or a series of non-natural events which include technological failures, failure of modernization, epidemics and plagues.
Social disastersare disasters caused by events or a series of events that caused by humans which include social conflicts between groups or between community communities, and terror.
Disaster events are events that occur and are recorded based on the date of the incident, location, type of disaster, victim and / or damage. If a disaster occurs on the same date and hits more than one region, it is counted as one event.
Earthquakes are vibrations or shocks that occur on the surface of the earth caused by collisions between the earth's plates, active faults, volcanic activity or rock debris.
Volcanic eruption are part of volcanic activity known as "eruption". The danger of volcanic eruptions can be hot clouds, material throws (incandescent), heavy ash rain, lava, poison gas, tsunamis and lava floods.
Tsunami comes from Japanese which means waves of the ocean waves ("tsu" means ocean, "nami" means waves). The tsunami is a series of giant ocean waves, the result of a shift in the seabed, due to an earthquake.
Landslides are one type of land mass movement or rock, or a mixture of both, down or out the slope, due to disruption of soil stability, or slope compiler rocks.
Flood is an event or situation where an area or land is submerged due to the increasing volume of water.
Flash floods are floods that come suddenly with a large flow of water, caused by the damming of the river flow in the river channel.
Drought is the availability of water that is far below the water needs for living needs, agriculture, economic and environmental activities. Drought in agriculture is a drought that occurs on existing agricultural land (rice, corn, soybeans and others) that is being cultivated.
Fire is a situation where a building in a place such as a house / settlement, factory, market, building, etc. is hit by a fire which causing casualties and / or losses
Forest and land fires are a situation in which forests and land are hit by fire which causing damage and economic or environmental value losses. Forest and land fires often causing smoke disasters, which can disrupt the activities and health of surrounding communities.
Tornado is a strong wind that comes suddenly, has a center, a circular motion resembling a spiral with a speed of 40-50 km / h, touching the surface of the earth and will disappear in a short time (3-5 minutes).
Tidal waves or storms are high waves caused by the effects of tropical cyclones around Indonesia's territory, and have potential to cause natural disasters. Indonesia is not in the area of tropical cyclone trajectory, but the existence of tropical cyclones will have a strong influence on strong winds, high waves accompanied by heavy rain.
Abrasionis the process of eroding beaches by ocean wave power, and destructive ocean currents. Abrasion is usually referred to as coastal erosion. Damage to the coastline due to abrasion was triggered by the disruption of the natural balance of the coastal area. Although abrasion can be caused by natural symptoms, humans are often referred to as the main cause of abrasion.
Transportation accidents are various transportation mode accidents that occur on land, sea and air.
Industrial accidents are accidents caused by two factors, unsafe human act and unsafe conditions. The types of accidents are very related to the type of industry, for example, work materials and equipment used, work processes, workplace conditions, even the workers themselves.
Extraordinary events (KLB) is the emergence or increase of illness or death, which occurs epidemiologically in an area within a certain period of time. Status of Extraordinary Events is regulated by Regulation of the Minister of Health No. 949 / MENKES / SK / VII / 2004.
Social Conflict or social unrest or riots, is a mass movement that is destructive to the existing social order and order, triggered by social, cultural and economic jealousy which are usually packaged as conflicts between ethnic, religious, racial (SARA) groups.
Terror Action is an intentional action carried out by everyone, using violence or threats of violence, causing an atmosphere of terror, or widespread fear of others, or causing mass casualties, by seizing independence, resulting in loss of life and property objects, and cause damage or destruction to strategic vital objects, or the environment, or international public facilities.
Sabotage is an action taken to weaken an enemy through subversion, inhibition, disruption and / or destruction. In war, this term is used to describe the activities of individuals or groups that are not related to the military, but by espionage. Sabotage can be done on several important structures, such as infrastructure, economic structures, and others.