The nation's resilience in facing Disasters.
Protect the nation from disaster threats, through risk reduction
Build a reliable disaster management system
Organizing disaster management in a planned, integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive manner
History and Vision Mission
The National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) history was formed from the development of disaster management during the independence period until the devastating natural disasters in the Indian Ocean in the 20th century. Meanwhile, these developments are strongly influenced by the context of the situation, scope, and paradigm of disaster management.
Seeing this reality, various disasters due to geographical, geological, hydrological and demographic conditions have encouraged Indonesia to build a vision to build the nation's resilience in facing the disasters.
Indonesia territory is the largest archipelago in the world. The area located between the continents of Asia and Australia, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans, has 17,508 islands. Despite having natural wealth, and the beauty of extraordinary islands, the Indonesian people need to realize that this archipelago has 129 active volcanoes, also known as the ring of fire, and is located at the confluence of three active tectonic plates of the world, the Indo-Australian Plate, Eurasia, and the Pacific.
Ring of fire dan berada di pertemuan tiga lempeng tektonik menempatkan negara kepulauan ini berpotensi terhadap ancaman bencana alam. Di sisi lain, posisi Indonesia yang berada di wilayah tropis serta kondisi hidrologis memicu terjadinya bencana alam lainnya, seperti angin puting beliung, hujan ekstrim, banjir, tanah longsor, dan kekeringan. Tidak hanya bencana alam sebagai ancaman, tetapi juga bencana non alam sering melanda tanah air seperti kebakaran hutan dan lahan, konflik sosial, maupun kegagalan teknologi.
The ring of fire and the meeting of three tectonic plates place this island nation, potentially against the threat of natural disasters. On the other hand, Indonesia's position in the tropics and hydrological conditions, triggered other natural disasters, such as tornadoes, extreme rain, floods, landslides and drought. Not only natural disasters as a threat, but also non-natural disasters often hit the country such as forest and land fires, social conflicts, and technological failures.
Facing those disaster threat, the Indonesian Government has played an important role in building a disaster management system in the country. Establishing an institution is one part of a system that has proceeded from time to time. This institution has been present since independence declared in 1945 and the development of disaster management providers can be divided based on the following time period.
1945 - 1966
The Indonesian government established the War Victim Family Assistance Agency (BPKKP). This body, which was established on August 20, 1945, focused on the conditions of the post-independence war situation in Indonesia. The Agency's task is to help the victims of war, and the families of victims, during the independence war.
1966 - 1967
The Government established the Central Natural Disaster Management Advisory Board (BP2BAP) through Presidential Decree Number 256 of 1966. The person responsible for this institution was the Minister of Social Affairs. BP2BAP's activities are to handle emergency response, and provide assistance to disaster victims. Through this decision, the paradigm of disaster management is developing not only focusing on human-caused disasters but also natural disasters.
1967 - 1979
The frequency of natural disasters continues to increase, a serious and coordinated disaster management is needed. Therefore, in 1967, the Cabinet Presidium issued Decree Number 14/U/KEP/I/1967 aimed at forming the National Natural Disaster Management Coordination Team (TKP2BA).
1979 - 1990
During this period the National Disaster Management Coordination Team (TKP2BA) was upgraded to the National Coordinating Board for Natural Disaster Management (Bakornas PBA) chaired by the Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare, and was formed by Presidential Decree Number 28 of 1979. Disaster management activities at this time, have includes the stages of prevention, emergency handling and rehabilitation. As the operational elaboration of the Presidential Decree, the Minister of Home Affairs through instruction Number 27 of 1979, formed the Coordination Unit for Implementation of Natural Disaster Management (Satkorlak PBA) for each province.
1990 - 2000
Disasters are not only caused by nature but also non-nature and social. Non-natural disasters such as transportation accidents, technological failures, and social conflicts, coloring disaster management thinking in this period. This was the reason behind the improvement of the National Coordinating Board for Natural Disaster Management, becoming the National Disaster Management Agency (Bakornas PB). Through Presidential Decree No. 43 of 1990, the scope of work of Bakornas PB was expanded and not only focused on natural but also non-natural and social disasters. This is reaffirmed by Presidential Decree No. 106 of 1999. Disaster management requires coordinated cross-sectoral, cross-actor and cross-disciplinary handling.
2000 - 2005
Indonesia experienced a multidimensional crisis before this period. Social disasters that occur in several places then create new problems. These problems require special handling because they are related to displacement. Therefore, Bakornas PB was later developed into the National Coordinating Agency for Disaster Management and Refugee Management (Bakornas PBP). The policy was stated in Presidential Decree No. 3 of 2001 which was later renewed by Presidential Decree No. 111 of 2001.
2005 - 2008
The earthquake and tsunami’s tragedy that hit Aceh and its surroundings in 2004, has encouraged serious attention from the Indonesian Government and the international community in carrying out disaster management. Following up on the situation at that time, the Government issued Presidential Regulation No. 83 of 2005 concerning the National Disaster Coordinating Board (Bakornas PB). This body has a coordination function that is supported by daily executors as disaster management implementers. In line with that, the disaster risk reduction paradigm approach has become a major concern.
In responding to the disaster management system at that time, the Indonesian Government was very serious about building legalization, institutions, and budgeting. After the issuance of Law Number 24 of 2007 concerning Disaster Management, the government then issued Presidential Regulation Number 8 of 2008 concerning the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB). BNPB consists of heads, disaster management directors, and disaster management implementing elements. BNPB has the function of coordinating the implementation of disaster management activities, in a planned, integrated and comprehensive manner.
Metamorphosis of the formation of the National Disaster Management Agency from 1945 to the present